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American System of Governance


The first government was set up by the articles of Confederation and it only lasted 10 years. The Confederation was a firm or league of states. The articles set up a government that consisted of a one house party delegates when each state having a single vote. Collectively could make decisions on certain issues that affected all the states. Technically John Hansen was the first president.


This government could declare war, conduct foreign affairs and make treaties, but couldn't collect taxes. The states could collect taxes and the government had to ask the states for money. Which required unanimous vote? Americans feared a tyrannical government. Democratic governments tend to at some point tax hard, quarter soldiers in homes.


The government passed new articles of government. One was the Northwest ordinance of 1787 which set up the process to create five new states between Ohio and Mississippi River to take land from the American Indians and another ordinance which outlawed slavery in all five of the new states. Because this government could not collect taxes for the national government the individual states racked up massive debt to pay for the war and their main source of revenue became tariffs. Congress could not impose them. States could individually but international trade was cumbersome. Farmers rose up and closed the courts to prevent them from foreclosing upon their debt encumbered land in what was named Shays rebellion. In a democracy too much democratic liberty among the lower classes threatens private property. Also rich people who held government bonds were nervous because without tax revenue they were unlikely to get paid.


In Annapolis in 1786 a better means of regulating international trade was proposed. The next year in Philadelphia the founders met to revise the articles of Confederation. A new charter of government was drafted. The Constitution included some significant alterations. Fifty five men met in Philadelphia and created a new form of government.


The government was to have executive legislative and judicial branches and should be Republican with representatives rather than direct democracy. They wanted government but not too much government. They also didn't want too much democracy which is why presidents though still technically elected directly by regular people but in fact by 538 members of the Electoral College system.


The major issue was how to distribute representation or power between states. Those with small population’s vs large state populations. The solution came with the House of Representatives with representation proportional to each states population and ascended with two members from each state House members also called Congressmen served two-year terms while Senators serve six-year terms with one third of them being up for election every two year cycle house was designed to be responsive to the people while the Senate was created to never pass anything. Slaveholding states were solved this issue with the 3/5 compromises for the purpose of determining the population the total number of white people +3/5 slaves. The Constitution also contains a fugitive slave clause requiring any escaped slave to be returned to their master.


The government under the Constitution embraced the principal of separation of powers. The government was divided into three branches legislative executive and judiciary and the Constitution Incorporated checks and balances each branch can check the power of the others the legislature can make laws but the president could not. The judiciary can declare its own laws which they had to grant themselves. Federalism is the idea that governmental authority rests both international and the state and the government. As an American I am a citizen both of the United States and of the state of Florida. The Constitution is supposed to be limited in scope to certain enumerated power was out of powers especially the protection of health safety and morals are left to the state constitution also seeks to protect against.



Three Branches of Government Politrics



The Constitution is a framework for the government of the United States. It holds that America should be separated into three separate branches. The three branches are the executive branch which includes the president a legislative branch and Congress and the judicial branch which includes the Supreme Court.


No one branch of government is to be more powerful than the other. The legislative branch makes a law. The executive branch executes a law and the judicial branch interprets each branch and performs separate functions and checks the other branches. In different ways they each have an effect on one another but every branch must respond to the will of the American people.


The legislative branch is the branch of the government that makes laws and is a group called Congress. Congress is divided into two parts, the House of Representatives and the Senate and the House of Representatives all states are represented in the number of representatives determined by that state's population. In America currently there are a total of 435 representatives. They serve a two year term and there is no limit to how terms you can run. Every two years is usually over 100 representatives running for reelection.


Why do people become elected officials? Some run for a position in the House of Representatives. Some run because under the guise of civic duty. While others run in order to change a particular policy. Many run in hopes of stepping into a political position of higher power.


The U.S. Constitution says you must be a minimum of 25 years or older at the time you run. You must be a resident of the state of which you want to represent. Candidates for Congress are usually well known. The either have money, they are well connected, popular or and lucky or unlucky depending on your perspective. They can be promoted to higher positions like speaker of the House of Representatives. Which is elected by the members of the house? A speaker is a leader of the majority party.


There is power over many people in this position. The speaker is an officer over the three critical roles. The House of Representatives is to submit national legislation that encompasses the entire country people on revenue. For example a tax bill must be approved by the Senate as well as the president of the United States in order for it to be carried out. The congress however can resubmit it and if they get at least two thirds majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives it becomes law. The House of Representatives can also impeach government officials. The house can choose a president if an Electoral College is stuck.


In the Senate and all states are represented equally by two senators regardless of the population in the state. Each member servers a term of six years. These terms are staggered so that approximately 1/3 of the seats are up for election every 2 Years. This insures that all of them are not running for election this time. The requirements in the U.S. Constitution for person to run for election into the Senate are you must be a US citizen for at least nine years when elected. You must be at least 30 years old. You must be a resident of the state.


The Vice President is the leader over the senate. Other senate leadership is the president protemper who leads the senate in the absence of the Vice President. A majority member picks people to serve on various powerful committees and a minority leader. A majority party is a political party either Republican or Democrat. The majority of the seats in senate.


The last party is the minority party. Both party’s majority and minority also a person called a wip. Who helped organize Senators along political party lines.  The main purpose of the Senate is to look at decisions of the president has made and decide if they agree or not agree. Some senators talk forever this is called a filibuster.


The major differences between a representative and a senator other than technical requirements are. A senator votes whether or not to confirm the president's judicial nominee. United States representatives do not have that right. The House of Representatives can introduce bills raise revenue by tax bills. Senators are restricted from doing that. They are permitted to introduce other types of bills though.


The Economy


The economy is a game. Though complex, it works on simple plays. This game is played on the backs the underlayment which is humanity and the fulfillment of their collective wants and needs. There are main aspects of an economy. They are productivity growth number the short-term debt cycle number, and the long-term debt cycle.



An economy is the sum of the transactions of that economy. Transactions occur over time between a buyer and a seller. A buyer exchanges money or credit with the seller for goods services or financial assets. Credit spends just like money so adding together the money spent in the amount of credit spent is the total amount of spending. The total amount of spending drives the economy. If you divide the amount spent by the quantity sold you get the price. All cycles at all forces in an economy are driven by transactions.


A market consists of all the buyers and all the sellers making transactions for the same thing. There is a wheat market, a car marked the stock market markets from millions of things. An economy is all of the transactions in all of its markets. If you add up the total spending and the total quantity sold in wall of the markets you have everything you need to know to understand the economy.


People and businesses banks and governments all engage in transactions in the market. In the game of exchanging money and credit for goods services and financial assets the biggest buyer and seller is the government. The governments roll consists of two important parts. The central government that collects taxes and spends money and a central bank which is different from other buyers and sellers in that it controls the amount of money and credit in the economy.


The Central Bank influences interest rates and printing new money. The central bank mediates the flow of credit. Credit is most volatile part of our economy. Buyers and sellers go to the market to make transactions in the form of lenders and borrowers. When you are a lender you want money produce more. Borrower mode wants to buy more as much stuff they can afford for as little money as possible like house or a car or the need to invest in something like starting a business. Credit works by helping both lenders and borrowers get what they want. Borrowers promise to repay the amount they borrow called principal plus an additional amount called interest. When interest rates are high there's less borrowing because it's expensive when interest rates are low borrowing increases because it's cheaper. Borrowers promise to repay.


Two people can agree to create credit out of nothing. Credit is a shape shifter. It has two different names. As soon as credit is created it immediately turns into debt. It now exists as both an asset to the lender and a liability to the borrower. In the future when the borrower repays the loan plus interest the asset and liability disappear and the transaction is settled.


Spending drives the economy. The person spending is actually spending another person's income. Every dollar you spend someone else earns and every dollar you earn someone else's spent. When you spend more someone else earns more when someone's income rise it makes lenders more willing to lend the money because now he's more worthy of credit. This is self-reinforcing pattern which leads to economic growth and is why we have cycles. A transaction requires one to give something in order to get something and how much you get depends on how much you produce over time.


The economy consists of households, firms, governments, and the rest of the world, which trade in factor markets and goods(and services) markets. Households and Firms Households sell and firms buy the services of labor, capital, and land in factor markets. For these factor services, firms pay income to households called wages for labor services, interest for the use of capital, and rent for the use of land. A fourth factor of production is entrepreneurship which receives profit.


Firms’ retained earnings—profits that are not distributed to households—are part of the household sector’s income. Retained earnings are actually income that households save and lend back to firms. Firms sell and households buy consumer goods and services—such as inline skates and haircuts—in the goods market. The total payment for these goods and services is consumption expenditure, or C.


Firms buy and sell new capital equipment—such as computer systems, airplanes, trucks, and assembly line equipment in the goods market. Some of what firms produce is not sold but is added to inventory. When a firm adds unsold output to inventory, we can think of the firm as buying goods from itself.


Governments buy goods and services from firms and their expenditure on goods and services is called government expenditure, or G.  Governments finance their expenditure with taxes. But taxes are not part of the circular flow of expenditure and income. Governments also make financial transfers to households, such as Social Security benefits and unemployment benefits, and pay subsidies to firms. These financial transfers, like taxes, are not part of the circular flow of expenditure and income.


The term, Rest of the World , describes how Firms, in the United States sells goods and services to the rest of the world called exports and buy goods and services from the rest of the world called imports. The value of exports (X) minus the value of imports (M) is called net exports. If net exports are positive, the net flow of goods and services is from U.S. firms to the rest of the world. If net exports are negative, the net flow of goods and services is from the rest of the world to U.S. firms.


Households make consumption expenditures (C)

firms make investments (I)

governments buy goods and services (G)

& the rest of the world buys net exports (X – M)

Firms pay incomes (Y) to households.

Aggregate income equals aggregate expenditure.

Source of data: U.S. Department of

Commerce, Bureau of Economic

Analysis. (The data are for the second quarter of 2010 annual rate.) Billions of dollars

C = 10,285

I = 1,842

G = 2,991

X– M = –539

Y = 14,579


The specific economic health of a business is measured using accounting. Recording the purchases and disposition of any organization is recorded according to USPAP which is uniform accounting practices and principles. Accounting consists of three basic activities it identifies, records, and communicates the economic events of an organization to interested users. Let’s take a closer look at these three activities. These activities are captured in 4 accounting reports.


• Income statement: An income statement presents the revenues and expenses and resulting net income or net loss for a specific period of time.

• Owner’s equity statement: An owner’s equity statement summarizes the changes in owner’s equity for a specific period of time.

• Balance sheet: A balance sheet reports the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity at a specific date.

• Statement of cash flows: A statement of cash flows summarizes information about the cash inflows (receipts) and outflows (payments) for a specific period of time.


Financial accounting provides economic and financial information for investors, creditors, and other external users. The information needs of external users vary considerably. Taxing authorities, such as the Internal Revenue Service, want to know whether the company complies with tax laws. Regulatory agencies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Federal Trade Commission, want to know whether the company is operating within prescribed rules. Customers are interested in whether a company like General Motors will continue to honor product warranties and support its product lines. Labor unions such as the Major League Baseball Players Association want to know whether the owners have the ability to pay increased wages and benefits. Accounting boils down to the following equation.


Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity


Back to Economics, GDP or Gross domestic product can be measured in two ways: By the total expenditure on goods and services or by the total income earned producing goods and services. The total expenditure aggregate expenditure is the sum of Aggregate expenditure equals consumption expenditure plus investment plus government expenditure plus net exports.


Aggregate income is equal to the total amount paid for the services of the factors of production used to produce final goods and services—wages, interest, rent, and profit. Because firms pay out as incomes (including retained profits) everything they receive from the sale of their output, aggregate income (the blue flow) equals aggregate expenditure (the sum of

the red flows). That is,


Y = C + I + G + X - M.


The value of the expenditures for 2010 was $14,579 billion, which also equals aggregate income. GDP equals aggregate expenditure and equals aggregate income.


A common fallacy is that accumulated knowledge raises our living standards. This productivity is called growth. If you were hard-working you raise your productivity and your living standards faster than those who were complacent.


But that isn't true. Over the short run productivity matters most in the long run but credit honors most of short run. Because productivity growth doesn't fluctuate so it's not a big driver of economic swings that is because it allows us to consume more than we produce.


Acquisition of stuff forces us to consume less than we produce when we have to pay back credit. This swing occurs in big cycles. One takes about 5 to 8 years. The product cycle takes about 75 to 100 years. People feel the swings they typically don't see them as cycles because they see them to a close day by day and week by week.





To increase your income which require one to be more productive and do more work which increases economic productivity. This is the only way for growth since my spending is another person's income the economy grows every time I or anyone else is more productive.  Because of how credit works think of borrowing is simply a way of pulling spending forward in order to buy something you can't.  You are spending more than what you ever make in America and are agreeing to slavery because basically anytime you borrowed you create a cycle.


This is as true for an individual as it is for the economy. The United States is about $50 trillion in total amount of money is only about $3 trillion remember in an economy without credit the only way to increase your spending is to produce more but in an economy with credit you can also increase your spending by borrowing. As a result an economy with credit has more spending and allows incomes to rise faster than productivity over the short run but not over the long rough.


Credit can be good if is used soley for the purpose of leverage. Say you buy a tractor's and that tractor lets you harvest more crops and earn more money than you can improve your living standards. In a self-reinforcing pattern member borrowing creates cycles and if the cycle goes off up it eventually needs to come down. The short term debt cycle as economic activity increases we see an expansion of the first phase of the short-term debt cycle spending continues to increase in prices start to rise this happens because the increase in spending is fueled by credit which can be created instantly out of thin air. When the amount of spending and income fell faster than the production of goods prices rise when prices rise we call this inflation. The central bank doesn't want too much inflation causes problems seen prices rise it raises interest rates and higher interest rates fewer people can afford to borrow money and the cost of existing debt rises think about this is the monthly payments on your credit card going up because people borrow less and higher debt repayments they have less money left over to spend so spending slows and since one person spending is another person's income there you go.


When people spend less prices go down we call this the fallacious economic activity decreases and that is a recession. If the recession becomes too severe and inflation is no longer a problem the central bank will lower interest rates to cause everything to pick up again. With low interest rates debt repayments are reviewed and borrowing and spending pickup and we see another expansion. This is a game


Local Government


The Bill of Rights paved the way for the specific expression of power of the constitution as it relates to local government on the lives of everyday citizens.


In 1833 the Supreme Court heard Barron vs Baltimore. The city of Baltimore was improving the street of Baltimore. The owner of property discovered that every time it rained his property was getting silted up. The issue was whether or not the city owed him money for destroyed his property. Barron sued and he lost to the state court. So what he did was to sue in federal court and he argued that this was a taking without compensation and violated his 5th Amendment rights. The case makes its way to the Supreme Court and justice Marshall rules that Barron didn't have a case because of action because the Bill of Rights says congress shall make no law not the state.


Congress was well aware of this cropping of infringement of the State on the rights of people in violation of the Bill of Rights were an issue. In another situation the 14th amendment which is one of the Civil War amendments. Congress became aware of the southern states which were not recognizing the rights of former slaves. The southern states at the time were trying to reinstituting slavery upon African-Americans. The Congress finding a need to act, amended the constitution with 14th amendment. What it did was to say that no state shall reinstitute slavery and thus insured the protection of liberty due process and equal protection of the 14th amendment. It is debated in the 1864 and is ratified in 1868. It set a precedent which acted as a bridge by which local and state governments are prohibited from violating Federal Statues.


The 9th and 10 amendments end the issue of state’s rights vs Federal statue or reserved powers. Which are designed to protect rights that are not enumerated or two reserved to the states’ rights not given or powers given to the national government support. This addressed what Hamilton feared a federalist 84 that if the federal government forgets to enumerated rights that they will be lost. So all not expressly stated or enumerated shall be retained by the people.


The 10th amendment powers not delegated United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectively or to the people.  So those powers not given to the national government in article 1 section 8 or those powers not prohibited to the states in article 1 section and everything else is reserved to the states respectively.


Everything you see was impacted in some way by state and local government. The clothes you wear, your furniture, your food, transportation, streets, stores, signs, and schools. Regulatory activates by the state and local government by way laws, regulations, licenses, inspections, guidelines rules, requirements, oversight, certifications, testing mandates the justification of sub regulatory bodies not directly implied by the constitution as well as constitutional responsibilities are promulgated by your state or local government.


Government comes in many shapes and sizes. They are villages, cities, townships, counties and special districts. These bodies are charged with providing such services as schools, water and sewage treatment. State government is even more complex and the federal government, especially the US Government is a world leader. A County is a subdivision of the state government. Counties were first created by states to serve as state offices close to where people lived. There primary purpose is defined as “Control of common affairs … granted to and maintained by a central authority. The County government provides major metropolitan services for all County residents – examples include traffic engineering, property assessment/tax collection, airport & seaport, water & sewer, and solid waste disposal. It also provides city-type services, such as police protection, garbage & trash collection, planning and zoning enforcement, for residents of the unincorporated areas (areas outside the cities). But municipalities often “Incorporated” which means cities have legal status to transact government business much as a private corporation. Most municipalities or cities provide their own police & fire protection, parks & recreation, and planning & zoning.



The country, state, county, municipality has functions and laws that are meant to compliment and overlap to provide structure to our nation. Each sub-division duplicates our Constitution and fine tunes the granularity of control on the people. For example the country has a President which is the Chief executive of the U.S. government. The state has a governor, the county has a mayor and the city has a mayor.




Communal groupings entrusts local, state and federal government with the responsibility of providing services for road construction and maintenance to afterschool care for our children and oversight of state parks and fisheries.


The Law


Law is defined as: that which is laid down ordained or established. The United States Supreme Court is the final controlling role in defining legal terms. The Supreme Court states that the law in its generic sense is a body in rules and action or conduct prescribed by controlling authority and having binding legal force.

The law is not right and wrong. If you want to understand right and wrong study philosophy. If you want to study truth and falsehood study math. The study of the law and justice falls squarely in the realm of politics.



Historically, laws are rules that the people in a society believe are important enough for a society to enforce. Law comes from an organized government but laws are designed so that they typically reflect what the majority of the people feel is just or right. Society makes law and it is made to reflect how the people feel about certain actions or conduct.


In America our law system originated in Great Britain. The original Thirteen Colonies came from Europe and they brought with them a set of rules and principles. English common law was the system of law in England at that time and was quickly adopted throughout the colonies. The English common Law is rooted in centuries of English history.


English common Law is based on a cultural system of settling disputes through local custom. Tribal peoples came together and organized these ancient customs into the basic principles that eventually became part of the American system of justice. Under English common Law disputes between two parties are handled on a case by case basis however the decision maker did not act without guidance. The decision maker was required to look too similar previously decided cases and use those established guidelines in traditions.


The customs in England were built upon an expanded for centuries. All previous court decisions were carried forward thereby preserving layers of customs. This is why the law is said to be truly common to all. For example Smith and Jones has land adjacent to one another. Smith intends to build a barn on his own land near his border with Jones. However Smith inadvertently builds his barn on Jones's land. Jones claims ownership of the barn and the two argue their positions in court. The court decides that Smith owns the barn that he built and he now also owns that small portion of land. This would now be the rule to be applied for all of those cases coming after Smith and Jones from that moment forward all landowners must be careful not to allow others to build permanent fixtures on their land otherwise they could lose ownership of a portion of their land.


Many other laws are made through judicial decisions. This judge made or court made law is case law a legislative body such as congress or estates legislature can also make laws. This enactment of laws create statutory law or stat sheets new law is constantly created through these two main methods but there are also other sources of law and the United States sources in law also include administrative regulations local ordinances and treaties.


The US system of laws is based on English common Law an inherited all others established rules. The framers of our Constitution created the United States Supreme Court through article 3. They felt there needed to be one court with final authority to determine cases that had not previously been settled the Supreme Court has the final or supreme say. This Court's rulings are the last and final word the supreme court settles disputes involving new law and also rules on the constitutionality laws.


Business Law


Business law encompasses all the laws that dictate how to form and run a business. This includes all up the laws that govern how to start, man and close or sell any type of business. Business laws established the rules that all businesses should follow. A business person should be generally familiar with business laws and know when to seek the advice of a licensed attorney. Business law includes state and federal laws as well as administrative regulations.


Business law addresses the different types and business organizations that can be formed. There are laws regarding how to properly form a business. Each type includes laws about entities such as corporations, partnerships and limited liability companies. If you start a pet grooming business you need to decide what type of business you want to form. Would it be a partnership or a sole proprietorship. What papers do I need to file in order to start this business. These questions fall under the laws that govern business entities which are state laws. The type of entity I'd pick will also affect how I pay my federal income taxes. These are federal tax laws. What will my business be called? Now you need to know if anyone else already has that name. This is a trademark question. Patents copyright and trademarks our part to intellectual property law. The federal law governs most intellectual property law. You need to know if all you require any special type of license for this business. If you need a license or to know if you are allowed to have animals on my property or do I need some sort of special permit? You would need to check your local and state laws to find out. Will you advertise? What are you allowed to say? These questions fall under consumer protection law which can be federal or state law.


To buy a business or not? If you buy a business there are many business laws that govern how to buy a business. The business you bought, do I now own the actual store. This is a real estate law question. Do you own the equipment of the business in this store? This is a property law question.


Both of these fall under state law. Are you the boss of the new business employees? This is an employment law question. Can you start hiring my own employees in ordering supplies. This will involve contract law since I'll be making new agreements with people regarding my business. In determining which agreement I need to uphold because contracts are legally binding agreements made by two or more persons enforceable by the court.


Businesses are involved in many different types of contracts and as a result there are cases involving breach of contract. A breach of contract is when one party doesn't hold up his or her end of the bargain. It's common for parties to dispute the terms other business agreement or disagree on how the agreement should be performed.


Enter a contract with a good understanding at the content and a good faith interest in upholding the contract. There are concerns managing business. You need to know how to hire. What my contracts should look like. What kind of benefits I have to provide. You need to know how to pay employees insurance and taxes and even how to properly fire an employee. Many of these employment and benefit laws our federal laws and regulated by government agencies. For example the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a federal agency that enforces employment discrimination laws. If I also decide to sell things as part the business  the Uniform Commercial Code(UCC). The UCC publication governs sales and commercial paper and has been adopted in some form by almost all states. What happens if I provide services they have trouble getting paid. This is a debt collection law. Debt collection laws are mostly federal laws. Many of our debt collection laws are found in the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act or the FTCPA which is enforced by the Federal Trade Commission.  What happens is an employee gives bad information purposefully to harm your business? This is tort law. Civil actions for wrongful deeds tort law is usually state law. This is an extensive area of the law and includes things like work injuries and negligence claims.


Law also covers the proper procedures for selling or closing a business.  If you shut does your business, do you need to cancel the licenses? Do I still have to pay my taxes and my business debts? These are things you need to research in my state laws. You may want to consider filing for bankruptcy. Many businesses go bankrupt bankruptcy is an important area business law and is covered under the federal law bankruptcy is a legal term and means that Court has determined that a person or organization cannot repay the debt does the court will govern the repayment of debt and perhaps discharge. Much of these laws encompass civil disputes which means that you are haggling over private disputes. If you run over the debt collector with your car that is an additional set of laws called criminal law. Criminal laws are crimes against society and also have a different standard of liability and culpability.









Florida Courts


The Florida court system is comprised of the Supreme Court, five district courts of appeal, 20 circuit courts and 67 county courts. Each layer of the Florida judicial system has a distinct role in providing justice to all Floridians. The highest appellate court in Florida, the Florida Supreme Court’s 150+ years span a time when the state was the least populated (1845) to the present (2014) when it ranks fourth nationwide. Decisions stemming from Florida’s highest court have helped shape, certainly, the state itself, but the nation as a whole. The Office of the State Courts Administrators (OSCA) is the administrative arm of the Florida Supreme Court. The office was formed in 1972, the result of Article V of the state constitution that sought to bring greater consistency and uniformity to the judicial branch.


There are five District Courts of Appeal in Florida, located respectively in Tallahassee, Lakeland, Miami, West Palm Beach and Daytona Beach.  As a general rule, decisions of the district courts of appeal represent the final appellate review of litigated cases.   


There are 20 judicial circuits in the Florida court system. Circuit courts have general trial jurisdiction over matters not assigned by statute to the county courts and also hear appeals from county court cases. Some circuits are made up of multiple countys.


The Florida Constitution establishes that there is ONE county court in each of Florida’s 67 counties. The county courts are sometimes referred to as "the people's courts," probably because a large part of the courts' work involves voluminous citizen disputes, such as traffic offenses, less serious criminal matters (misdemeanors), and relatively small monetary disputes.





The law is embodied by the law man. Law enforcement officers are required to abide by the limitations that the Constitution sets and the case law decisions that interpret those limitations. Certain amendments are

particularly relevant to law enforcement. The Constitution protects individuals from governmental abuse of power and defines law enforcement’s authority to act.


In any situation, an officer must be able to determine how to follow the law. According to the U.S. Constitution, all people stand equal before the law and therefore share certain rights. These rights, such as freedom of speech, protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, and prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, are described in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which are known as the Bill of Rights. Although many of these amendments focus on the courts and the legislature, some, such as the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments, focus on law enforcement activities.


The purpose of government is to secure and protect these rights. The government is the agent of the people, not their master, and a law enforcement officer represents the law. The U.S. Constitution sets parameters within which the government operates and establishes laws. The decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court and other appeals courts resolve issues or conflicts which arise under the Constitution.


The Bill of Rights


The First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments are of particular importance to law enforcement, as they concern issues of officer liability.


The First Amendment protects freedom of speech, press, peaceful assembly, and religion. Examples of law enforcement activities that may be affected by the First Amendment include arrests for disorderly conduct and seizure of press materials such as cameras, tapes, and writing material.


The Second Amendment guarantees the right to bear arms. Chapter 790 of the Florida Statutes sets forth the guidelines regarding firearms in the state of Florida.


The Fourth Amendment prohibits unreasonable search and seizure and generally requires a warrant signed by an independent magistrate (judge). Law enforcement activities affected by the Fourth Amendment include law enforcement’s entry into homes, vehicles, luggage, purses, or other places where a person has a reasonable

expectation of privacy, including his or her person, and interference with people’s right to possess and maintain control over their property. Law enforcement stops and arrests, including the use of force on persons, are considered seizures and must meet the reasonableness requirement.


The Fifth Amendment is best known for prohibiting compelled self-incrimination. It also requires grand jury indictment for capital crimes and prohibits double jeopardy and deprivation of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Law enforcement activities affected by the Fifth Amendment include interviewing and arresting suspects or taking other illegal law enforcement action in violation of due process.


The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial, counsel, an impartial jury, to be informed of the nature of the charges, and to confront witnesses. Law enforcement activities affected by the Sixth Amendment are related to making contact with a suspect who is represented by counsel.


The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines and cruel and unusual punishment. Other than making a bond recommendation or request to the judge, a law enforcement officer has little to do with fines or punishment.


The Bill of Rights was originally intended to restrict actions of the federal government only. The Fourteenth Amendment expanded the application of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments as well. This was done by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment: No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction of the equal protection of the laws.


The Fifth Amendment also contains a due process clause but is limited only to the actions of the federal government. Simply put, the due process clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments require the government to be fair when taking away someone’s life, liberty, or property.


Breaking a law can range from ordinances established by a municipality to a federal offences in violation of the constitution.






The History and Medieval Universities


Today now in the 21st century there over 4,000 types of academic degrees. The first university began in many will Europe list at the University of Bologna established in 1088. Followed by the University of Oxford and 1096 and the University of Paris.  Back then teachers were paid either directly by the student or by the church or by the King. Medieval universities did not have a campus and classes were taught wherever spaces available. The focus of the curriculum at the time was around the seven liberal arts. Studies like grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry and music were offered. Like present times degrees from bachelorate and master's and to obtain a doctorate the graduate had to devote the next 10 years of study. Oxford was the first models for university systems in feudal England.


The myth being told to a person in America is that you need a degree to be successful in life is complete bullshit. Fifty percent of America’s total population makes less than 46,000 annually. Seventy five percent makes less the 65,000 a year and 20% makes more than that. Only 35% of Americans have a degree. Specific and marketable skill sets either by trade, experience or education is what determines profitability.


People who are highly recruited by growth sectors in tech, acquisition by a major or profitable as sole or other type of proprietorship has nothing to do with GPA or decoration by scholarship. Your profitability will be determined by market forces, exclusivity of what you offer and availability of what you provide. A doctor has majored in an exclusive field that demands licensure which will be granted after completing a scholastic requirement, training and certification. If that doctor has bad practice or bad quality or is uncertified there is no profitability either. Teachers, lawyers and accountants must have degrees and certifications, and training and memberships in organizations and dues and on and on. By the way if you are studying one of those fields for money, quit that degree immediately. Those three fields are being digitized and ratified and outsourced and will be extinct as we know it by 2020.


In a college catalog there are only a few courses that will count towards a field in a growth sector which requires college for licensure. So if you want to be a teacher for public school, go to college but if you want to be paid for teaching, you don’t need college.


The real goal of COLLEGE not higher learning is to introduce its customers to American debt which is modern slavery. By stigmatizing American into the false equity of education and successful life and the guilt and emptiness of debt and a useless piece of paper, the victim has a decision to make. Do I continue to proselytize the lie of education for self-preservation or admit that one was foolish to spend so much time and money towards an endeavor which was at best a misguided choice at a vulnerable moment of sincerest want to self sustain.


The ruling class is vested in indebting children and creating padawans of the reptilian arts. You have to be able to learn new skills. If your goal in life is to be in study then study. The children of the privileged gets the best jobs private and government. So if you're in a class of 150, only the top three picks which are for people whose family is already connected. If you are selected after tens of thousands of dollars of college you will still have to work for a C plus average like old “W” or Dubyahh. Bush that is.





A black market or underground economy is the market in which goods or services are traded illegally. The key distinction of a black market trade is that the transaction itself is illegal. The goods or services may or may not themselves be illegal to own, or to trade through other, legal channels. Because the transactions are illegal, the market itself is forced to operate outside the formal economy, supported by the established state power. Common motives for operating in black markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes, or skirt price controls. Typically the totality of such activity is referred to with the definite article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services, e.g. "the black market in bush meat".


The black market is distinct from the grey market, in which commodities are distributed through channels which, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer, and the white market.


The black market is considered a subset of the informal economy, of which 1.8 billion people worldwide are employed.



Households make consumption expenditures (C)

firms make investments (I)

governments takes bribes, buy goods and services (G)

& the rest of the world buys net exports (X – M)

Firms pay incomes (Y) to households.

Aggregate income equals aggregate expenditure.

Prostitution, Illegal Gambling, Racketeering, etc. (N)

Source of data: U.S. Department of

Commerce, Bureau of Economic

Analysis. (The data are for the second quarter of 2010 annual rate.) Billions of dollars

C = 10,285

I = 1,842

G = 2,991

X – M = –539

Y = 14,579 + N(1,829)

Yn = 16,408


The Holy Bible speaks of the intervention of agents of “old” and men of “renown.”  The nature, location and purpose of these being have been described at length by the text and there influence in man’s endeavors.


…3 Then the LORD said, "My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh; nevertheless his days shall be one hundred and twenty years." The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown. Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.…


Genesis 6:4


Agenda Setting Theory


The media and entertainment industry has the "ability to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda." That is, if a news item is covered frequently and prominently the audience will regard the issue as more important. Agenda-setting theory was formally developed by Dr. Max McCombs and Dr. Donald Shaw in a study on the 1968 presidential election. In the 1968 "Chapel Hill study," McCombs and Shaw demonstrated a strong correlation between what 100 residents of Chapel Hill, North Carolina thought was the most important election issue and what the local and national news media reported was the most important issue. By comparing the salience of issues in news content with the public's perceptions of the most important election issue, McCombs and Shaw were able to determine the degree to which the media determines public opinion. Since the 1968 study, published in a 1972 edition of Public Opinion Quarterly, more than 400 studies have been published on the agenda-setting function of the mass media, and the theory continues to be regarded as relevant.


The interconnectivity, influence and proliferation of the corporate message set the pace of society. Society adopts laws, messaging, clocks and monetary exchange to organize resources. The sodalities and nuances of the messages are the determining factors of a group’s survival.


How recourses are made available to society is determined not by the ambient environment but by control and power of messaging. Haiti and Japan has different economic influence.  Japan is for the most part an infertile rock with very little precious metals yet they have far more economic influence than Haiti which has better aggregable land, closer proximity to a huge profitable nation like America. Saudi Arabia has oil but so does South Africa, Gabon, the Republic of Congo and about six more African nations. The indigenous people of those lands in most cases are poor as poor gets with no messaging and no rights to the recourses they own. If you really want to see the power of the depravation of messaging over access to rights, and recourses. Look at the decedents of slaves in the West including the American Negro. The United States is a study in how to use the manipulation of messaging to deprive blacks of life, liberty and access to resources. This is how it is done.


To successfully deprive a people embedded in a nation of wealth you have to start with the premise that everyone is equal. Humans are like electrons, completely the same and that being a fact, how do you begin to selectively filter people and for what purpose. People are sensory so visible attributes are a tool to start the process of filtration. What else? Well humans occupy communal groups of like kind and tend to group together when they share common strata of classifications like culture, socio economic status and human consumption needs. So a group’s location, consumption and economic status are tools which can be used to filter people. So why filter? Predatory groups filter resources, liberty and life so that there groups can excel. This is accomplished by penning a specific attribute of a group to negatives which will create a handicap so the likelihood of success is unlikely over the long run.


How does it work? You need a process to implement a plan and the processes of filtering a group is racism.

Racism consists of both prejudice and discrimination based in social media driven perceptions of biological differences between peoples. It often takes the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems that consider different races to be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities. It may also hold that members of different races should be treated differently. Should be treated different is future racial based on previous conditions or stereotyping.


Once this process is adopted it must be agreed to by everyone and maintained. Micro aggressions statements are the latest maintenance of racist systemic filtration. Daily iteration with people making dubious comments in passing and physical postures and gestures as well as old school overt monitoring, murdering, assaulting and door keeping. The tools for execution are in place to accommodate the methods of filtration. Over policing specific communities which have been successfully depressed by systemic deprivation of its residents or ghettos. These ghettos have less healthy food, schools, access to healthy public places, etc. So as the residents procreate, each child is introduced to this filtration and cultivated to accept dat bullshit.


Does it work, well Yes!!! For example, black Americans fill us prisons, are more likely to die prematurely, and are less wealthy in respect to the overall population in a nation whose mean wealth far surpasses the average wealth of the average western nation. This is important to America as the super group cannot exist in its current status without the permanent subversion of a population. This system was started with slavery and was constantly threaten by the liberation of African slaves. Various techniques to insure subjugation of groups like Native Indians, African American and immigrants have been implemented throughout American history with almost surgical precision. Terrorism by groups like the KKK, Incarceration for petty offenses, disenfranchisement by partial legal status like imperfect immigration status, parole, grandfather clauses, and harassment at work, predatory lending, family debilitating welfare policies are tools of the trade and have worked with great effect to insure the perpetual subjugation by super groups.

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Hola, is Rosa still alive? No? Well this is not my day. Look at us, crying like a couple of girls on the last day of camp. Great, now I'm gonna smell to high heaven like a tuna melt! Te quiero. English, please. I love you! Great, now I'm late. Perhaps an attic shall I seek.



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